Chronology

The chronology of megalithic culture in India is in controversy many scholars have given their
opinion basing on the burials studied by them. Wheeler suggested that the culture had survived in
between 200 B.C. and 50 A.D., at Hallur. The radio carbon dates collected so far reveal that 555 B.C.
at Takalghat in Nagapur area. A few megalithic sites in A.P., have carbon dates and suggest a
chronological frame work of Polakonda 185 B.C. – 35 A.D., Satanikota 235-575 A.D., and 540-635
A.D.(calibrated). Ramapuram 3280±130 BP (1230 B.C) and Veerapuram 3010±100 B.P (1027 B.C) The
researches done so far in South India revealed that the culture has been started from 1100 B.C. and
continued up to 3rd C.A.D.

Rayanapeta, Excavation site, East Godavari Dist.

Rayanapeta (17º.64’ N. latitude by 84º.94’ E. longitude) is a small village stands on the left bank of
river Godavari in Yetapaka mandal of East Godavari District. Of the east, one and half kilometer away
the burial complex is located adjacent to a Patimalagudem hamlet of Rayanapeta. The burial
complex locally known as Rakshasabandalu, is located towards the North-West corner of the village.

The burial complex having nearly 100 is spread in half a kilometer in North South direction and 200
meters in East West. Most of these are of Dolmen type having capstone covered by cairn heap and
in some cases with the circle stones also.

Rudramakota, Excavation site West Godavari Dist.

Rudramakota (17º.34’ N. latitude by 81º.14’ E. longitude) is a small village lying on the southern
bank of the river Godavari, in the Velerupadu mandal of West Godavari District. People believe that
Rani Rudrama devi took rest at this village in between war periods, so it called as Rudramakota.

Megalithic Burial Excavation

The term megaliths originally used by antiquarians to describe a faith, easily definable class of
monuments in Western & Northern Europe, consisting of huge undressed stones and termed as
celtic dolmens, cromlechs and menhirs. The term ‘megalith’ is derived from two Greek words i.e.
megathos meaning ‘huge’; lithoi meaning ‘stone’. It is generally considered as a grave or memorial
stone whether dressed or in its natural form containing, enclosing are erected over the funerary
assemblage. The megalithic culture has no regional bounds. As its cultural remnants are found in
Europe, Africa and Asia. The Indian peninsula is more prolific in this culture; in northern India this
culture is sporadic in occurrence in comparison with South India.

Birth and death are two important events in human life. But there is a belief on life after
death. As a social animal, the relation with the fellow men, death plays an important role. The
tradition, disposal of dead body, beginning with the pit and urn burials of the Neolithic-Chalcolithic
times, there occurred various changes in the mode of disposal. In course of time these changes
culminated in the development of a peculiar way of disposal by the time of Iron Age, which is widely
known as megalithic culture. In Andhra Pradesh 33 megalithc burial sites were excavated so far.